The anatomy of bull markets since 2009 differs greatly among regions. GS did a good job deciphering the drivers of rising equity markets in different countries, which show the contribution of both valuation (P/E i.e. investor psychology) and fundamentals (i.e. real corporate profits).
Per MS’s report dated Jan 3rd 2017:
« 2016 saw the 3rd best annual performance for US High Yield on record. Commodities posted their best year of returns since 2009, a feat all the more impressive given early losses. It was a surprisingly ho-hum year for performance in global equities (+8.5% in MSCI ACWI), global rates, and the USD (+4.3%), with those numbers masking big divergences by region, style, and the 1st-versus-2nd half of the year. We also note that global correlations have plunged, driven largely by the breakdown in rates correlation to risk assets and regional correlations within equities. »